Melanoma Treatment
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Melanoma Treatment 

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Mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome treatment 
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Skin color and exposure to sunlight can affect the risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis.

Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma include the following: 

 Exposure to a lot of natural or artificial sunlight.
 A fair complexion (blond or red hair, fair skin, green or blue eyes, history of freckling). 
 Scars or burns. 
 Exposure to arsenic. 
 Chronic skin inflammation or skin ulcers. 
 Radiation exposure. 
 Immunosuppressive drugs (for example, after an organ transplant). 
 Actinic keratosis.

Risk factors for actinic keratosis include the following: 
 Exposure to a lot of sunlight. 
 A fair complexion (blond or red hair, fair skin, green or blue eyes, history of freckling). 

Nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis often appear as a change in the skin.  Not all changes in the skin are a sign of nonmelanoma skin cancer or actinic keratosis, but a doctor should be consulted if changes in the skin are seen. 

Possible signs of nonmelanoma skin cancer include the following: 

 A sore that does not heal.

Areas of the skin that are: 

 Small, raised, smooth, shiny and waxy. 
 Small, raised, and red or reddish-brown. 
 Flat, rough, red or brown and scaly. 
 Scaly, bleeding or crusty. 
 Similar to a scar and firm.

Possible signs of actinic keratosis include the following: 

 A rough, red, pink or brown, raised, scaly patch on the skin. 
 Cracking or peeling of the lower lip that is not helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly. 

Tests or procedures that examine the skin are used to detect and diagnose nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis.

The following procedures may be used: 

 Skin examination by a nurse or doctor looking for any abnormalities 
 Biopsy: All or part of the abnormal-looking growth is cut from the skin and viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to see if cancer cells are present.  May include biopsy of sentinel lymph node.

Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. 

The prognosis depends mostly on the type of cancer, the stage of the cancer and the type of treatment used to remove the cancer. 

 The size and location of the tumor. 
 The patient’s general health.
 Lymph node involvement.

Depending on the extent of cancer found, colon surgery may be required.  A board-certified general surgeon, surgical oncologist or colorectal surgeon will perform this surgery, which in many times can be done with a minimally invasive technique.  Lymph nodes surrounding the colon will also be removed and tested to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the colon.  Laparoscopic ultrasound may also be used during surgery to pinpoint the exact location of cancers that have spread to the liver or other organs.

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