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Causes of Male Infertility 

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Your doctor will be interested in any factor, including possible structural and other defects in the reproductive system, hormonal deficiencies, illness or even trauma that might be impairing your fertility.

The most common factors include:

 Sperm disorders
Problems with the production and development of sperm are the most common problems of male infertility. Sperm may be underdeveloped, abnormally shaped or unable to move properly. Normal sperm may also be produced in abnormally low numbers or not at all.

 Varicoceles
These dilated scrotal veins are present in 16 percent of all men but are more common in infertile men. They impair sperm development by preventing proper drainage of blood. Varicoceles are easily discovered during a physical examination and are the most common correctable cause of male infertility.

 Retrograde ejaculation
Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen is directed backwards into the bladder instead of out the penis. It is one of several difficulties that may result in failure of delivery of sperm to the vagina during intercourse. Retrograde ejaculation can be caused by previous surgery, medications or diseases affecting the nervous system. Signs of this condition may include cloudy urine after ejaculation and diminished or "dry" ejaculation with orgasm.

 Immunologic infertility
Triggered by a man's immunologic response to his own sperm, antibodies are usually the product of injury, surgery or infection. In attacking the sperm, they prevent normal movement and function of the sperm. Although researchers do not yet understand just exactly how antibodies damage fertility, they know that these antibodies can make it more difficult for sperm to swim to the uterus and penetrate eggs.

 Obstruction
Blocking sperm from its normal passage, obstructions can be caused by a number of factors, such as repeated infections, prior surgery (including vasectomy), inflammation or development problems. Any portion of the male reproductive tract can be obstructed, preventing normal transport of sperm from the testicles to the urethra, where it leaves the body during ejaculation.

 Hormones
Hormones produced by the pituitary gland are responsible for stimulating the testicles to make sperm. Therefore, when levels are severely low, poor sperm development can result.

 Genetics
Genetics play a central role in fertility, particularly since sperm carry half of the DNA mix to the partner's egg. Abnormalities in chromosomal numbers and structure, as well as deletions on the important Y chromosome, can also adversely impact fertility.

 Medication
Certain medications can affect sperm production, function and ejaculation. Such medications are usually prescribed to treat conditions like arthritis, depression, digestive problems, infections, hypertension and even cancer. 





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